The Moon Mission, Chandrayaan 3

The Moon Mission, Chandrayaan 3

On 14th July ,India will try its second attempt to soft landing on the Moon.The last Mission , Chandrayaan 2 was an unsuccessful attempt in its last stage.The aim of this mission is to achieve soft landing on the lunar surface and explore it with a rover.United States ,Russia and china are already achieve successful soft landing on lunar surface.

Chandrayaan 3 is the third mission which will take off on 14th July at 2:35 pm. India focuses to become the fourth nation that would grasp success through Chandrayaan 3. ISRO Scientists have worked very hard for this mission. They have learned a lot from the previous mission. The Design of Lander has improved after many experiments. They have worked on electronics, sensors, velocity,Landing spots, etc.

Previous Moon Missions

Chandrayaan 1 is a lunar orbiter type of mission, its never focused to reach on Lunar surface.It was launched by the ISRO in October 2008.The Mission included a lunar orbiter and impacter.The Mission Duration is around 10 months . PSLV-XL rocket played an important role in this mission because it used to launch the spacecraft.This Mission is termed as a successful moon mission.

Chandrayaan 2 is the second type of Lunar Mission developed by the ISRO , launched  in 2019. Chandrayaan 2 was partial failed , the lander and rover had crashed on the moon,instead of landing softly on it . The main issue was that the five engines on the lander developed a slightly higher thrust than expected. The failure of chandrayaan 2 and pandemic have disrupted ISRO timeline a bit.

Image Source: Outlook India

About Chandrayaan 3

Chandrayaan 3 has three major components -Propulsion module, lander, and Rover. The Weight of  the Propulsion Module is  2,145kg and the weight of the Lander is 1749.86 kg (including the rover). The Rover and payload are around 26 kg and 3,900 kg.

ISRO’s LVM3 carrying Chandrayaan3 being moved to the launch pad ahead of its launch, at the Satish Dhawan Space Station , in Sriharikota. The Landing site is 69.36 degree S,32-34 degree E, slightly off the site for chandrayaan 2. The change in the current landing site has been made on the basis of the pictures captured by the chandrayaan 2 orbiter,that have provided a very clear map of the Lunar surface. It will spend 42 days to moon .

Chandrayaan 3 will reach lunar orbit almost a month after launch and its lander and rover are likely land on the moon on August 23. If this Mission will became successful, It will become the world first mission to soft land near the lunar South Pole . It is easier and Safer to land near the lunar Equator because  the terrain and temperature are more hospital and conducive for long and sustained of the operation of the instruments on board. There are abandant sunlight and fewer hills and craters.The surface in this region is smooth.

The Polar Region of the Moon is very difficult and different in comparison with the Lunar Equator . Maximum Area closes to the Lunar Poles lie in the completely dark region where sunlight never reaches and temperature can fall to below minus 230 degree celsius .The Absence of sunlight , presence of craters and extremely low temperatures make it difficult to operate instruments.

Image Source: Economic Times

Experiments

The payloads on the lander and rover remain the same as in the previous Mission. There will be four scientific  payload on the lander to study Lunar Quakes,Thermal  Properties of the Lunar surface ,changes in the plasma near the surface,changes in the plasma near the surface and a passive experiment to help accurately measure the distance between earth and moon. The Fourth Payload comes from NASA.

There are two payloads on the rover ,designed to study the chemical and mineral composition of  the Lunar surface and to determine the composition of elements such as magnesium,aluminium and iron in the Lunar soil and Rocks.

A New Experiment has been tracked on to the propulsion module that will remain in orbit around the moon for three to six months . It is called Spectro – Polarimetary of Habitable Planet Earth (SHAPE),it will look for smaller planet that may be habitable in the reflected light .

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