Determinant of Indian Foreign Policy

Indian Foreign Policy

Foreign Policy

Foreign Policy plays an important role in maintaining diplomatic and strategic relations with friendly and non-non-Friendlyntries. The aim of creating any country’s foreign policy can understand through different perspectives likprotectingct the country from any internal and external threats; creating a friendly relationship with foreign countries for the inclusive development of the country concerning its economy; engaging in international forums and raising its own interest in front of the whole world; and to protect Diasporas which are the major source of remittances.

Indian Foreign Policy

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Indian Foreign Policy also includes the basic principle of foreign policy and wants to achieve the basic objection of foreign policy such as focusing on security, diplomatic relations, international dialogues, and protecting their citizens in other countries. Three foreign policy tools exist: Diplomacy, foreign aid, and Military Force. In Indian Foreign Policy, Diplomacy is the major tool in the major decisions of Indian Foreign policy. Panchsheel Agreement is the best example of India’s Diplomatic treaty with Pakistan.

Determinant of Indian Foreign Policy

There are many determinants of Indian Foreign Policy to understand the relationship with other countries . It is very important to know its determinants to study Indian foreign Policy.

  1. Historical and cultural factor
  2. Geographical Factor
  3. Political factor
  4. Economical factor
  5. Strategical Factor
  6. Global Issues
Image Source: Hindustan Times

Let’s study all the above determinants in brief:

  1. Historical and cultural factor: Indian history gives us many reference of Ancient Indian foreign Policy. The Most Influential and remarkable work is Arthashastra that was written by Kautilya. Arthashastra contains all the spheres to run the kingdom. It describes the Military affairs and need to maintain the friendly allies with the foreign countries. It strongly focuses on diplomatic allies with the powerful nations for defeating the Enemy neighbouring Country.
  • Geographical Factors: Indian geography is very diverse in itself. The Northern India covers with the Himalayas which work as a natural boundary and protect from enemy nations. The Southern India is a peninsular area, it has huge coastline which compels India to maintain a strong Navy. Gangetic Belt is core area of India which consists the major population of the country, it is also very active for economic affairs. An another aspect of Geographical factor is distribution of minerals. Scarcity of Minerals create dependency on other foreign country and effect import-export policies of the nation. For example Lithium Reserve found in Ladakh can impact India’s foreign policy and trade relations positively.
  • Political Factors: Balakot surgical strike,Indus Water Treaty, Teesta Water Treaty etc are some of the example of political impact on Indian Foreign Policy.Foreign Policy comes under Union List but Border States have very strong influence on it.West Bengal has very strong instance with respect to Bangladesh related foreign policy same as Tamil Nadu plays crucial role with regard to Sri Lanka. The Ideology of Ruling Party also Influences the nature of Foreign Policy between Offensive and Defensive diplomacy.
  • Economic Factors:  Trade, Loan and Investment are three major components that develop economic determinant with foreign countries . Trade can be includes crude oil, defence equipment, processed and packed food, and many other items. Loan and Grants  are also increase good relation among nations.India’s Investment projects in different countries show diplomacy and power of the Nation on International Forum like investment in Chabahar Port of Iran and Trilateral Highway project of Myanmar-Thailand-India.
  • Strategic Factors: This Determinant includes issues related to national Security from any external threat such as War and Terrorism. India follows majorly defensive Policy in instance of War from the Independence. It also proposes no first attack  policy with respect to Nuclear Attack. Terrorism also comes under strategic factors. India faced many terrorist attack, Mumbai 26/11 Attack is one of them. Strong Intelligence bureau and their spy network are the major policy to tackle the issue of terrorism.

6)Global Issues: World is a Global Village . It is connected with each other after the development of Globalization. Globalization increases large number of exchange of Ideas, culture and people among the countries but sometime globalization gives birth to global Issues like Covid-19 and Climate Change. Covid-19 began from china and reached every continent of the world very quickly. It crashed the economy of many countries and took away many lives . Another most drastic Global issue is Climate Change which is effecting Island countries due to carbon emission by the Developed countries.

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